The brave new world of environmental economics--complete with pollution markets, emission brokers, and commodity auctions of emission allowances--has been developing in the U.S. for several decades. This book traces the evolution of such environmental management techniques in industrial Philadelphia. Initially as a "greene country towne," the city's development led to significant pollution concerns, including rivers filled with sewage, typhoid deaths, and smoky plumes from coal combustion. Technological pollution controls improved conditions, but blunt regulatory tools eventually evolved into more refined economic approaches. This book describes that transition and the economic mechanisms that have emerged in recent decades, as well as prospective markets for ozone precursors, greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental risk (potentially offering what one pundit labeled "cancer futures"). In doing so, it presents a comprehensive overview--from old to new--of urban environmental management.
This book presents a compendium of the urban layout maps of 2-mile square downtown areas of more than one hundred cities in developed and developing countries-all drawn at the same scale using high-resolution satellite images of Google Maps. The book also presents analytic studies using metric geometrical, topological (or network), and fractal measures of these maps. These analytic studies identify ordinaries, extremes, similarities, and differences in these maps; investigate the scaling properties of these maps; and develop precise descriptive categories, types and indicators for multidimensional comparative studies of these maps. The findings of these studies indicate that many geometric relations of the urban layouts of downtown areas follow regular patterns; that despite social, economic, and cultural differences among cities, the geometric measures of downtown areas in cities of developed and developing countries do not show significant differences; and that the geometric possibilities of urban layouts are vastly greater than those that have been realized so far in our cities.
This second volume, the follow-on to Teaching Music in the Urban Classroom, Volume 1: A Guide to Survival, Success, and Reform, extends the conversation to include educational leadership, teacher education, partnerships, and school reform. As with Volume 1, classroom music teachers, inner city arts administrators, well-known academics, and policy-makers from across the United States and Canada join together to offer a full range of political, philosophical, and practical approaches to reaching kids in urban schools. These authors, whose voices are distinct and yet united, guide music educators at every level, motivating them to challenge tired assumptions, reconsider the issues, and transform their classrooms and their students. See also:Teaching Music in the Urban Classroom, Volume 1 ORDER BOTH VOLUMES 1 & 2 NOW AND SAVE! 1-57886-545-X $65.00 paper set / 1-57886-544-1 $130.00 cloth set
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